The foundation is the last part of the building, it is responsible for transmitting the entire load of the house to the foundation and distributing that load to the ground area to avoid subsidence as well as ensure other safety criteria. The foundation plays a very important role, it determines the sustainability, use time, cost, … of the house. In case the work has been completed and put into use but the foundation is damaged, the renovation will be very difficult, expensive and takes a lot of time.
The height of the foundation is calculated from the bottom of the foundation to the top of the foundation, including the base of the foundation, the foundation body (foundation, foundation) and the foundation neck (foundation wall). The top of the foundation should be higher than the natural ground and placed 0.1 – 0.2 lower than the floor. The top of the foundation is usually wider than the wall and column, that is, has a footing edge. When the foundation has a large height, the foundation body should be stepped or trapezoidal to expand the bottom. People also need to know that the foundation base is the main bearing part of the foundation of all kinds of constructions.
Types of house foundations in construction
In terms of foundation depth, there are two types: shallow foundation and deep foundation.
Shallow foundations are built in open pits and then filled with soil.
A deep foundation is a foundation that is lowered into the ground and can pick up soil from the foundation. Some types of deep foundation such as: submersible well foundation, pile foundation, slightly pressed submersible well foundation are deep foundation type. Pile foundations are the most common type.
According to the shape of the ground in construction, there are types: single foundation, ice foundation and raft foundation.
The single foundation is located under the column (pillar). Single nails are located separately, on the ground with many shapes such as square, rectangular, octagonal, round, etc. Single nails are very diverse such as hard nails, soft nails or combination nails. In which single foundation is the most cost-effective.
Tape foundation (continuous foundation) is the type located under columns or walls. Usually only choose to apply ice foundation when it is not possible to use single or single foundation close together, or to balance settlement between columns, or under walls. Ice foundation is more commonly used in civil construction instead of industrial buildings because it settles more evenly and is easier to construct. However, it should only be used when it has a width of <1.5m, if the width is > 1.5m, it is recommended to use raft foundations to save money. Note that it is necessary to design a reasonable foundation to avoid deflection.
When the rows of columns or walls have both directions, the intersecting tape foundation is shaped like a checkerboard on the plan. The tape foundation in the back of the house must be better than the tape foundation along the house, the wall foundation. Usually put the bottom of the ice foundation at the same depth, so the ice foundation in the house is usually wider.
Tape foundation used in construction usually has 3 types: hard foundation, soft foundation or combined foundation.
Experience when using ice nails
If it is a hard foundation with a large foundation depth, it should be replaced with a soft tape foundation to save more money. If the foundation depth is limited or the structure requires stable foundation, or high strength, reinforced concrete foundation must be used. When the foundation base is reinforced concrete, many problems will be solved.
Ice foundation is also very useful in building basements, it has the effect of blocking the ground, creating tunnel walls. Tunnel walls may be below ground or partially above ground. The basement’s ice foundation must be placed 0.4m deeper than the basement floor and the top of the foundation will be under the floor.
The types of foundations mentioned above also have some other types of foundations, when facing weak mud and unstable geology, pile foundation will be the structural solution for the project.